The avocado is a fleshy exotic fruit that is obtained from the tropical tree of the same name. In some parts of South America it is known as Avocado. It presents dimensions of 5-6 cm in length. The normal weight ranges between 200-400 g, although pieces weighing up to 2 kg can be found. The bark is thick and hard green color whose tone depends on the variety. The pulp is creamy to yellowish-green in color, with a nutty flavor. It has a single round, light brown seed and 2-4 cm.
Food and nutrition
Its contribution in oleic acid exerts beneficial cardiovascular effects, decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. It contains a significant amount of minerals and vitamins, necessary for the proper functioning of the body.
The avocado is a fleshy exotic fruit that is obtained from the tropical tree of the same name. In some parts of South America it is known as Avocado. It presents dimensions of 5-6 cm in length. The normal weight ranges between 200-400 g, although pieces weighing up to 2 kg can be found. The bark is thick and hard green color whose tone depends on the variety. The pulp is creamy to yellowish-green in color, with a nutty flavor. It has a single rounded light-colored seed and 2-4 cm, which appears covered with a thin woody layer.
The fruit is a unisemlated, oval berry with a smooth or rough surface. The veraison occurs only in some varieties and the ripening of the fruit only when it is separated from the tree.
The pollination of this species is carried out by bees and other insects of similar size.
This fruit is characterized by a high percentage of fat. It is very energetic and its use is encouraged at the end of meals. Specifically, 100 g of this product provide between 128 and 233 kcal. It is a fruit very rich in minerals, mainly potassium, iron and phosphorus. The avocado is a very low carbohydrate fruit, it does not even reach 2 grams per 100, when for example one apple reaches 14 grams. However, it is called “vegetable butter” because it is very rich, as indicated above, in fat. But this fat is about a healthy fat, vegetable, unsaturated and without cholesterol.
You can consume both raw and cooked, using more as a vegetable than as fruit. It lacks a characteristic sweet or acid flavor, which allows it to be combined with many dishes.
Avocados can be purchased throughout the year. The color of the skin depends on the variety and does not indicate the degree of maturity of the fruit. The optimal moment of its consumption is marked by the softness of the pulp, when it can be spread like butter. Those that are not fully mature leave 2 or 3 days to mature at room temperature, being able to stop their ripening by introducing them in the refrigerator. Anyway, we must bear in mind that this fruit does not support very low temperatures.
The process of harvesting it for commercialization is done by determining the point of commercial maturity, which is the advisable time for its commercialization and consumption. One of the indexes used to determine the point of maturation is the percentage of oil in the fruits. In California the minimum content of oil to harvest should be 8% and in Israel 10%.
It is a subtropical species demanding in its climatic conditions, so its cultivation is reduced to areas with temperatures higher than the isotherm of 16-17ºC.
Its main marketing problem is that once collected, its maturation process is very fast, so it is necessary to select post collection technologies that delay the climacteric crisis and / or ethylene synthesis.
Avocados are evergreens; the beginning of fruiting does not occur before 4 or 7 years.
Most avocados can be grouped under a single species: Persea americana Mill. The avocado is an extremely vigorous tree that can reach up to 30 m in height. Its root system is relatively superficial, lacking visible radicular hairs, but it has many secondary ramifications under normal conditions. The wood of the stem is moderately hard and rough, not very resistant to high intensity winds.
The leaves are alternate, multiform (from lanceolate to oval), with lengths between 10 and 40 cm. The size of the tree varies from an erect form to extended low forms.
The small avocado flowers are grouped in panicles that usually appear terminal or subterminal in the last vegetative growth. Flowering usually occurs in late winter-spring. The flowers have twelve stamens, a single pistil with a single carpel and a single ovule. They present a chalice with three sepals and a triple-stemmed corolla.
All avocados can be framed in two types, according to their floral behavior, A and B. This floral behavior only occurs under warm weather conditions, particularly when diurnal / nocturnal temperatures of 25ºC / 15ºC, respectively, occur. The cultivars of group A respond better to conditions of low temperatures in flowering than those of group B, which also behaves adequately in this situation.
The pollination is carried out by bees and other insects of similar size. The fruit of the avocado is a single-seed berry. The fruits of many avocado varieties can be kept in the tree and continue to grow and accumulate oil even several months after their proper collection date. The fruits vary in weight, from 100 g to 3 kg. They also vary in shape (from round to pyriform) and in color (a range that ranges from green-yellow to green, purple and black).
Regarding the ideal conditions for its development, daytime temperatures are accepted around 15 and 20ºC. Temperatures above 36ºC cause serious damage, especially in fertilization and fruit set.
CDA – Agricultural Development Contract
BONAE employs a set of opportunities for third party farmers which include a proforma liquidity offer in exchange of future product and/or a joint venture agreement where we allocate efforts to comercialize their finished products.